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Biblical Terminology and Theology

Biblical Terminology and Theology

By Ron Bedell


Redeem: first, the theme of the entire Bible, from Genesis to Revelation, is Redemption!

Redeem means to buy back.

Redemption is the action of regaining possession of something in exchange for payment, or clearing a debt.

Another definition is the following: redemption is the act of redeeming or atoning for a fault or transgression.

God, who was the original Creator, lost ownership of His creation because of the sin of Adam and Eve in the Garden, but the blood of Jesus Christ enabled God to regain ownership of His creation.


Eternal damnation is through Adam, Eternal Life is through Jesus Christ


“9 Since we have now been justified by His blood, how much more shall we be saved from God’s wrath through Him! 10 For if, while we were God’s enemies, we were reconciled to Him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through His life! 11 Not only is this so, but we also boast in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation.” (Romans 5:9-11)


“In Him we have redemption through His blood, the forgiveness of sins, in accordance with the riches of God’s grace.” (Ephesians 1:7)


“18 Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers;

19 But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:” (1 Peter 1:18-19)


“Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree:” (Galatians 3:13)


The “curse” is not the Law. The curse is the penalty levied for not keeping the Law. This verse (Galatians 3:13) is a strong declaration of substitutionary redemption whereby Christ took the penalty of all guilty lawbreakers on Himself. Thus the “curse of the Law” was transferred from sinners to Christ.


Question: “If Christ took the sins of the world on Himself (2 Corinthians 5:21) and suffered the penalty of mans sins (which is eternity in hell) then why isn’t He there now? Jesus Christ was fully God and fully man. So where did Christ go when He was in the grave for three days (crucifixion to resurrection)? Please look at the following two links below from “Got Questions.” Remember it just took one sin to send a person to hell forever, but Christ was sinless.


Remember the story of the rich man and Lazarus in Luke 16:19-31? Before Christ’s death there were two compartments of “hell.” One was the place of torment where the rich man went and the other was Abraham’s Bosom (where Old Testament believers went). Between the crucifixion and the resurrection Christ took all the believers in Abraham’s Bosom to Heaven with Him.


The answer to the question above is the atonement was not about Jesus going to hell, but rather, the atonement was about Jesus taking all the sins of the world on Himself right there at the Cross and shedding His blood to provide the only sacrifice for sin that God would accept. Christ’s sacrifice for sin is the only sacrifice for sin that would satisfy God’s just demands on the guilty sinner (all mankind). “Propitiation” means satisfy. Christ satisfied God’s just demands on the guilty sinner when He died on the Cross.


Jesus’ suffering and punishment for mans sin ended the moment He died. The payment for sin was paid. Jesus then awaited the resurrection of His body and His return to glory in His ascension. Did Jesus go to hell? No. Did Jesus go to sheol/hades? Yes.


“The view of Jesus descending to hell is negated by the words of Jesus Himself. On the cross, Jesus cried out, "It is finished!" (John 19:30). His suffering was over; there was no more payment needed for salvation. Also just before His death, Jesus said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit" (Luke 23:46). Upon death, His spirit went to the Father, not to hell. Also, Jesus promised the thief on the cross that they would be together today in paradise (Luke 23:43). This could not have happened if Jesus had spent three days in hell.”


2 Corinthians 5:21:


“Paul now explains how reconciliation occurs. In his expression, “for He made Him who knew no sin,” he puts forth this definite statement that Jesus was sinless. Jesus makes this claim for Himself (John 8:46). Furthermore, it is stated that God made Jesus “to be sin for us.” The expression “to be” is supplied. So Paul is saying that God the Father made His innocent Son the object of His wrath for the sake of the world by placing the sins of the world on Him (Jesus). There is no suggestion that Christ became sinful or a sinner. Jesus knew no sin, but God put our sin on Him. God did all of this through Jesus so “that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.” God declares righteous the individual who believes in Christ for everlasting life (Philippians 3:9; John 3:16). It is the great exchange: the sinners sin for Christ’s righteousness. There is no greater news that can be spread, which is why Paul was so passionate in sharing this news with so many others.” (The Grace New Testament Commentary, Vol. 2, page 789)


16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.

18 He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.  (John 3:16-18)


For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

Not of works, lest any man should boast.  (Ephesians 2:8-9)


Biblical terminology and theology




<!--<if !supportLists>-->1.       <!--<endif>-->Bible Doctrine

<!--<if !supportLists>-->2.       <!--<endif>-->Systematic Theology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->3.       <!--<endif>-->Theology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->4.       <!--<endif>-->Contemporary Theology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->5.       <!--<endif>-->Theology Proper or Paterology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->6.       <!--<endif>-->Christology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->7.       <!--<endif>-->Pneumatology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->8.       <!--<endif>-->Bibliology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->9.       <!--<endif>-->Soteriology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->10.   <!--<endif>-->Christian anthropology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->11.   <!--<endif>-->Hamartiology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->12.   <!--<endif>-->Angelology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->13.   <!--<endif>-->Christian demonology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->14.   <!--<endif>-->Satanology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->15.   <!--<endif>-->Ecclesiology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->16.   <!--<endif>-->Eschatology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->17.   <!--<endif>-->Christian theology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->18.   <!--<endif>-->Old Testament Theology

<!--<if !supportLists>-->19.   <!--<endif>-->New Testament Theology


<!--<if !supportLists>-->1.       <!--<endif>-->Bible Doctrine is Biblical teaching or instruction.


Question: "What is doctrine?"

The word translated “doctrine” means “instruction, especially as it applies to lifestyle application.” In other words, doctrine is teaching imparted by an authoritative source. In the Bible, the word always refers to spiritually related fields of study. The Bible says of itself that it is “profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness” (2 Timothy 3:16). We are to be careful about what we believe and present as truth. First Timothy 4:16 says, “Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers.”

Biblical doctrine helps us understand the will of God for our lives. Biblical doctrine teaches us the nature and the character of God (Psalm 90:297:2John 4:24), the path of salvation through faith (Ephesians 2:8–9Romans 10:9–10), instruction for the church (1 Corinthians 14:26Titus 2:1–10), and God’s standard of holiness for our lives (1 Peter 1:14–171 Corinthians 6:18–20). When we accept the Bible as God’s Word to us (2 Timothy 3:162 Peter 1:20–21), we have a solid foundation for our doctrine.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->2.       <!--<endif>-->Systematic Theology: Systematic theology is any study that answers the question, "What does the whole Bible teach us about any particular topic or doctrine?"


“Systematic theology is a discipline which addresses theological topics one by one (e.g. GodSinHumanity) and attempts to summarize all the biblical teaching on each particular subject. Sometimes called constructive theology or even dogmatic theology, the goal is to present the major themes (i.e. doctrines) of the Christian faith in an organized and ordered overview that remains faithful to the biblical witness.”  


Question: "What is systematic theology?"

“Systematic” refers to something being put into a system. Systematic theology is, therefore, the division of theology into systems that explain its various areas. For example, many books of the Bible give information about the angels. No one book gives all the information about the angels. Systematic theology takes all the information about angels from all the books of the Bible and organizes it into a system called angelology. That is what systematic theology is all about—organizing the teachings of the Bible into categorical systems.



<!--<if !supportLists>-->3.       <!--<endif>-->Theology comes from two Greek words that combine to mean “the study of God.”

The study of “theology” is understanding what God has said about Himself. We learn that God is the Creator of all things; He is the Sustainer of all things; and He is the Judge of all things. He is the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end of all things. When Moses asked who was sending him to Pharaoh, God replied, “I AM WHO I AM” (Exodus 3:14). The name “I AM” indicates personality. God has a name even as He has given names to others. The name “I AM” represents a free, purposeful, self-sufficient personality. God is not an ethereal force or a cosmic energy. He is Almighty, self-existing, self-determining Being with a mind and a will—the personal God who revealed Himself to humanity through His Son and His Word. No theology will ever fully explain God and His ways because He is infinite and higher than we are. God has provided man with information about Himself, but not everything.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->4.       <!--<endif>-->Contemporary Theology:

Contemporary theology is generally defined as a study of theology and theological trends from post-World War I to the present. Roughly covering the twentieth century to today, the major categories typically addressed by contemporary theology include fundamentalism, neo-orthodoxy, Pentecostalism, evangelicalism, neo-liberalism, Post-Vatican II Catholicism, Eastern Orthodox theology of the twentieth century, and the Charismatic Movement.

In addition to these larger categories, contemporary theology also deals with specialized areas such as liberation theology, feminist theology, and various ethnic theologies. With the wide variety of credos involved, few scholars would claim to serve as “experts” in contemporary theology. Rather, the trend is to specialize in one or more areas of contemporary theological research.

A more recent branch of contemporary theology is the study of interfaith dialogue. Historic Christian theology is compared with the worldviews of non-Christian belief systems as the basis for dialogue between different faiths. Recent pursuits have focused on the shared values between two or more faiths, such as the “Abrahamic Faiths” (Judaism, Christianity, and Islam) or Eastern Religions (including Hinduism, Buddhism, and Christian movements such as the underground Chinese Church).

Contemporary theology is primarily a field of academic scholarship. As such, it addresses intellectual challenges facing theology, including science, social issues, and religious practices. While many contemporary theologians share a Christian heritage, not all do. In fact, many agnostic or even atheist scholars have entered the field and are teaching their views regarding faith and belief in contemporary society.

For the Bible-believing Christian, contemporary theology is important, as it traces the development of beliefs in recent history. However, it is critical to realize that contemporary theology often departs from traditional Christian theology when it evaluates faith in the context of various social movements or in comparison with other belief systems. Adhering to a biblical worldview is not usually the goal.

Those who want to understand what God’s Word teaches on today’s important topics can find helpful information in a wide variety of contemporary theological materials. However, the Bible itself does not change. It is the standard of truth for the believer, both now and forever (
2 Timothy 3:16-17).


<!--<if !supportLists>-->5.       <!--<endif>-->Theology Proper or Paterology: Theology Proper is the study of the first Person of the Godhead, God the Father and His attributes. Theology Proper answers several important questions about God: “Does God exist?” “What are the attributes of God?” “What does the Bible teach about the Trinity?” “Is God sovereign or does mankind have a free will?” Theology Proper discusses God’s omnipresence, omniscience, eternality. Paterology focuses in on how God the Father is distinct from God the Son and God the Holy Spirit.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->6.       <!--<endif>-->Christology is the study and work of the second Person of the Godhead, the Lord Jesus Christ.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->7.       <!--<endif>-->Pneumatology is the study and work of the third Person of the Godhead, God the Holy Spirit.


“And when He (Holy Spirit) is come, He will reprove the world (unbelievers) of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:” - John 16:8 (the “sin” of the unbeliever will send them to hell; Christ’s “righteousness” that the unbeliever needs to get to Heaven – Philippines 3:9; and God’s eternal “judgment” in hell that will come if the unbeliever rejects Jesus Christ.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->8.       <!--<endif>-->Bibliology is the study of the Bible, God’s Word.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->9.       <!--<endif>-->Soteriology is the study of God’s salvation for mankind through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ.


The doctrine of Soteriology has to do with God reconciling sinful mankind back to Himself – Reconciliation.


John 3:16-18:


16 For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

17 For God sent not His Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through Him might be saved.

18 He that believeth on Him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.


Ephesians 2:8-9:


For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God:

Not of works, lest any man should boast.


“Repentance” when used in reference to salvation means “change your mind.” When Jesus Christ and John the Baptist preached repentance to the unsaved Jews, they were telling the unbelieving Jews to change their mind, that is, change their mind about what they thought could get them to Heaven and to accepting God’s way to get to Heaven which is through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. The unbelieving Jews thought their Abrahamic heritage would automatically qualify them for entrance into the Kingdom and  Heaven. But God’s way to Heaven is through faith in His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ – the Messiah of Israel.


There are other terms used in scripture in relation to the doctrine of Soteriology: redemption (explained above), justification, regeneration, and propitiation. “Reconciliation” is an over-all term of scripture which encompasses all the other terms as a part of what God has done through the Lord Jesus Christ  to completely remove the enmity or alienation, the whole of the barrier (sin, God’s holiness, death, unrighteousness, etc.). Remember the key word in “propitiation” is ‘satisfy.” In other words, Christ’s death on the Cross satisfies God’s just demands on the guilty sinner – you and me. 


Soteriology is the study of the doctrine of salvation. It is derived from the Greek word soterious which means salvation. Some of the subjects of soteriology are the atonementimputation, and regeneration.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->10.   <!--<endif>-->Christian anthropology is the study of the nature of man from a Biblical point of view.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->11.   <!--<endif>-->Hamartiology is the study of sin.  


<!--<if !supportLists>-->12.   <!--<endif>-->Angelology is the study of angels.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->13.   <!--<endif>-->Christian demonology is the study of demons (the unseen world) based on the teaching of the Bible.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->14.   <!--<endif>-->Satanology is the study of Satan


<!--<if !supportLists>-->15.   <!--<endif>-->Ecclesiology is the study of the nature and mission of the Church (Pentecost to the Rapture).


<!--<if !supportLists>-->16.   <!--<endif>-->Eschatology is the study of End-Times and the Later Days (“End-Times” or “Later Days” starts right after the Rapture of the Church and goes into eternity).  


<!--<if !supportLists>-->17.   <!--<endif>-->Christian theology is an attempt to understand God as He is revealed in the Bible.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->18.   <!--<endif>-->Old Testament Theology: “Old Testament Theology” is the study of what God has revealed about Himself in the Old Testament.


<!--<if !supportLists>-->19.   <!--<endif>-->New Testament Theology: “New Testament Theology” is the study of what God has revealed about Himself in the New Testament.

Phil Chimera
Everything God does is to save souls!
Ron Bedell